Monday, 17 August 2015

COHESIVE DEVICES

 Cohesion: linking words and phrases
You can use words or short phrases which help to guide your reader through your writing, and to link sentences, paragraphs and sections both forwards and backwards. Good use will make what you have written easy to follow; bad use might mean your style is disjointed, probably with too many short sentences, and consequently difficult to follow. Your mark could be affected either way.

The best way to "get a feel" for these words is through your reading. Most textbooks and articles are well-written and will probably include a lot of these cohesive devices. Note how they are used and try to emulate what you have read. Do make sure though that you fully understand their meaning: incorrect use could change completely what you're trying to say. Try to use a variety of expressions, particularly in longer pieces of writing.

Don't forget "AND"! Two short sentences are often best connected together with this little word.

There follows a list of words and phrases that can be used. The list is not exhaustive, and BE CAREFUL: although grouped together, none is totally synonymous. Their position in the sentence can also vary; this is where your reading and dictionary come in.
Listing
Giving examples
Generalising
first, second, third
for example
in general
first, furthermore, finally
for instance
generally
to begin, to conclude
as follows:
on the whole
Next
that is
as a rule
Reinforcement
in this case
for the most part
Also
namely
in most cases
Furthermore
in other words
usually
Moreover
Result/consequence
Highlighting
what is more
so
in particular
in addition
therefore
particularly
Besides
as a result/consequence
especially
above all
accordingly
mainly
as well (as)
consequently
Reformulation
in the same way
because of this/that
in other words
not only ... but also
thus
rather
Similarity
hence
to put it more simply
Equally
for this/that reason
Expressing an alternative
Likewise
so that
alternatively
Similarly
in that case
rather
correspondingly
under these circumstances
on the other hand
in the same way
Deduction
the alternative is
Transition to new point
then
another possibility would be
now,
in other words
Contrast
as far as x is concerned
in that case
instead
with regard/reference to
otherwise
conversely
as for ...
this implies that ...
on the contrary
it follows that
if so/not
in contrast
turning to
Stating the obvious
in comparison
Summary
obviously
Concession (sth unexpected)
in conclusion
clearly
however
to conclude
naturally
even though
in brief
of course
however much
to summarise
as can be expected
nevertheless
Overall
surely
still
Therefore
after all
yet
Here are just a few examples of some of the words in action:

REINFORCEMENT
Desktop computers are cheaper and more reliable than laptops; furthermore, they are more flexible.

RESULT/CONSEQUENCE

Prices fell by more than 20% last year. As a result, sales increased by 15%.

GENERALISING

On the whole, his speech was well received, despite some complaints from new members.
CONTRAST
The South East of the UK often has the coldest weather in the winter. Conversely, the North West of Scotland frequently has the mildest temperatures.
CONCESSION
It was a very expensive holiday, the weather was bad and the people weren’t very friendly. Nevertheless, we would probably go back to the same place.


Transition word exercise

Always ask yourself what the exact relationship is between the sentences or parts of sentences. Are you leading to the result of something? Are you making a deduction? Are you introducing some contradictory evidence or ideas? Your choice of word or phrase obviously depends on this. And always check in a good dictionary if you're not quite sure about a word's use or its position in a sentence. Remember that punctuation will affect what you use.

Insert the best alternative

1 Polls show that Tony Blair is the most popular Prime Minister this century. ______________ , there are even members    of his own party who are uneasy with his approach.
In particular
However
For instance
2 There are some slight variations in temperature, but ________________ 26 to 27ÂșC should be expected.
consequently
otherwise
as a rule

3 The two main Channel Islands, ________________ Jersey and Guernsey, are much closer to France than to England.
for example
namely
in particular

4 It was announced that nurses' working hours would be increased by 25%. ______________ , even fewer trainee nurses     are expected to join the profession.
As a result
So that
Likewise
5 Sales of CDs have experienced a small but steady fall over the past 12 months. _____________ , vinyl records have    seen an increase in their share of the market, up to 1.7%.
Above all
Correspondingly
In contrast
6 The Vice Chancellor explained that in light of the current financial climate and because of unexpected bad debts, it would be necessary to peg salary levels at their current level for all grades of staff. ______________ , no-one was getting a pay rise.
Nevertheless
In other words
Similarly
7 It is clear, therefore, that the situation in Brazil will improve only slowly. ______________ the economic problems being experienced in Japan, the outlook is slightly more optimistic.
Furthermore
In comparison
With reference to
8 In order to try to reduce car use in the inner cities, the government has announced new restrictions on company parking spaces and ______________ , a new tax on individual car use.
as well as
in addition
in the same way
9 Essays must be handed in by the deadline, ______________ they will not be marked.
obviously
otherwise
as a result
10 ______________ it has been shown that fractures can occur at even relatively low pressures, the use of the material should not be completely discounted.
Nevertheless
Because
Even though